presa
msoflios shvidi saocreba

15:17 18.02.2012 [presa.ge]

dzv. w. 120 wels berdzenma poetma antipatre sidonelma aghwera imdroindeli msoflios shvidi yvelaze gamorcheuli nageboba. matgan bevri ukve aghar iyo shemorchenili, magram mat shesaxeb arsebobda sxvadasxva gadmocema da legenda. es nagebobebi dziritadad tavmoyrili iyo aghmosavlet xmeltashuazghvispiretshi. dzveli msoflios shvid saocrebata siam chvens dromde moaghwia. martalia, am didebuli shenobebidan mxolod egviptis piramidebighaa shemorchenili, magram am dzeglebis garshemo dghemde didi interesia da arc momavali taobebi darchebian mat mimart gulgrilni.

1. egviptis piramidebi

saukunis win, dzv.w IV ataswleulshi, egviptes martavdnena meotxe dinastiis udzvelesi faraonebi. mat shesaxeb bevri cnoba ar shemonaxula. am faraonebis didebasa da dzlevamosilebas adastureben mative samudamo gansasveneblebi, romlebic kacobriobam aghiara msoflios yvelaze did da idumal saocrebad. esenia gizis cnobili piramidebi. gakvirvebas iwvevs ara mxolod mati forma, zoma da sainjinro teqnika, aramed isic, rom piramida adamianis mier sheqmnili qvis pirveli nagebobaa. aghsanishnavia isic, rom gizis piramidebi dzveli msoflios shvid saocrebatagan ertadertia, romelmac titqmis tavdapirveli saxit moaghwia chvenamde.

pirveli piramidis ageba faraon joseris saxels ukavshirdeba. misi arqiteqtori imhotepi egviptelebma ghvtaebadac ki sheracxes. yvelaze didi piramida faraon xufustvis aashenes. es faraoni ufro xeofsis saxelit aris cnobili. egviptelebis rwmenit, xeofsis piramida unda yofiliyo yvela adrindelze maghali da didi. mis asasheneblad daaxloebit asi atasi mona shromobda. pirveli ati weli mosamzadebel samushaoebs daschirda – gahyavdat gza msheneblobis adgilisaken, txridnen miwisqvesha saidumlo gvirabebs, xolo mdinare nilosis aghmosavletit, qvis samtexloebshi, atasobit mona lodebs tlida da nilosis dasavlet napirze gadahqonda. piramida shendeboda oci wlis ganmavlobashi.igi xeofsis mmartvelobis 31-e wels dasrulda. daaxloebit ori milion samasi atasi qvis lodi, titoeuli 2,5 tonamde simdzimis, spilendzis iaraghebit gaxerxes da mchidrod miakres ertmanets.

piramidis simaghle 147 metrs aghwevs. gatlili qvis filebi isea ertmanettan midgmuli, shig nemsis gatarebac chirs. piramidas shesasvleli chrdiloetis mxridan aqvs. viwro derefani shedis samarxshi, sadac faraonis kubo idga. igi chvenamde ar shemonaxula. gverditi derefani dedoflis akldamashi gadioda. xeofsis sikvdilis shemdeg misi cxedari gakvetes, tvini da shigneuloba amoacales, sxeuli 70 dghe marilian wyalshi sheinaxes, surnelovani fisi wausves da gamzadebuli mumia sudarashi gaaxvies.

2. babilonis dakiduli baghebi

dzv.w. 604-562 wlebshi babilons martavda didi mefe nabuqodonosor II. misi samefo dghevandeli erayis teritoriaze, mdinare evfratis napirebze mdebareobda.

mefem izruna, rata babiloni umshvenieresi da ayvavebuli qalaqi yofiliyo. gaocebas iwvevda qalaqis shesasvleli, romelic qalghmert ishtaris karibched moixsenieboda. karibchis koshkebi mopirketebuli iyo sxvadasxva feris mochiquli shorenkecit. muq lurj fonze gamosaxuli iyo tetri da yviteli xarebis, drakonebisa tu oqrosferfarfliani lomebis figurebi. ishtaris karibchidan iwyeboda da mtel qalaqs kvetda procesiis qucha, romelsac amshvenebda samefo sasaxle da mtavari tadzari. sasaxlis kedlis mighma mochanda e.w. dakiduli baghebi. terasebad agurdagebul taghebze noyieri miwa eyara. darguli iyo aziis sxvadasxva kutxidan moziduli xeebi, buchqebi da yvavilebi. shoridan ise chanda, titqos baghebi haershi ekida. baghebi irwyveboda evfratis wylit, romelic iq sagangebo wyalsaqachi borblebita da tyavis churchlit ahqondat.

es baghebi nabuqodonosoris brdzanebit aages misi usayvarlesi colistvis. amitisi mtiani qveynidan, midiidan iyo, babilonis gashlil vakeze agebuli dakiduli baghebi ki mas tavis samshoblos agonebda.

babilonis dakiduli baghebis gashenebas dghesac shecdomit miaweren dedofal shamurats, romelic nabuqodonosoramde orasi wlit adre ganagebda babilons. mas berdznebi semiramidas uwodebdnen. swored am garemoebam gamoiwvia, rom nabuqodonosoris mier sheqmnil baghebs bevri semiramidas baghebad moixseniebs. babilonis dakidebuli baghebisagan dghes araferia darchenili, magram, tu rogori iyo igi, shegvidzlia warmovidginot dzvel asurul reliefze gamosaxuli babilonuri shenoba-nagebobebis mixedvit.

3. artemidas tadzari efesoshi

qalaqi efeso mcire aziashi, dghevandeli turqetis dasavlet sanapiroze mdebareobs.

dzv.w.VI saukuneshi efeso lidiis samefos umnishvnelovanesi politikuri da religiuri centri iyo. lidiis samefom gansakutrebul aghmavlobas miaghwia ukanaskneli mefis kreses dros. man gadawyvita, nadirobis mfarveli qalghvtaebis saxelze tadzari aego. berdznebi am ghvtaebas artemidas uwodebdnen, xolo romaelebi-dianas. tadzari daaxloebit dzv.w. 560 wlisatvis ashenda.

igi agebuli iyo kirqvita da mopirketebuli iyo marmariloti. tadzris saxuravi da frontoni eyrdnoboda 20 metri simaghlis marmarilos 120 kolonas. tadzari shemkuli iyo atasgvari ornamentita da skulpturit. centrshi idga artemidas qandakeba. artemidas tadzari klasikuri epoqis yvelaze didi nageboba iyo.misi sigrdze 131, xolo sigane 79 metrs aghwevda.

tadzris agebidan orasi wlis shemdeg, dzv.w. 356 wels, igi mtlianad gaanadgura xandzarma. tadzari dawva vinme herostratem, romelsac surda, rom am gzit tavisi saxeli samudamod darcheniliyo kacobriobis istoriashi. mogvianebit aleqsandre makedonelma moinaxula efesos tadzari da misi aghdgena brdzana.

am dzeglis restavraciis shesaxeb mogvitxrobs dzveli berdzeni istorikosi straboni, romelic wers, rom cecxlisgan ganadgurebuli tadzari aghudgeniat da aghdgenili nageboba pirvandelze gacilebit lamazi da warmtaci yofila. tumca, artemidas tadzari mainc ver gadaurcha ganadgurebas. III saukuneshi igi momtabare gutebma dzirfesvianad daangries da gadzarcves. mravali wlis shemdeg arqeologebma efesoshi aghmoachines artemidas tadzris umnishvnelo nashtebi, am didebuli nagebobidan mxolod erti kolonaghaa shemorchenili.

4. zevsis qandakeba olimpiashi

olimpia dzveli saberdznetis mnishvnelovan religiur centrs warmoadgens. swored am qalaqtan aris dakavshirebuli dzv.w. 776 wels pirveli olimpiuri tamashebis chatareba, romelic yovel otx weliwadshi ertxel imarteboda da sayoveltao popularoba moipova. tamashebis dros saomari moqmedebebic ki igrdzaleboda, rata shejibrebis monawileebs da mayureblebs olimpiadaze moxvedra shesdzlebodat.

dzv.w.Vs-shi berdznebma gadawyvites, olimpiashi aghemartat ghmertebis mefis – zevsis qandakeba. amisatvis jer uzarmazari tadzari aages, xolo qandakebis sheqmnis sapatio saqme did moqandakes – fidiass miandes. fidiasma zevsis qandakebaze mushaoba dzv.w 435 wels daasrula. zevsi ijda oqros taxtze. misi figura gamokvetili iyo oqrosa da spilos dzvlisagan. zevss tavze edga oqros gvirgvini, xolo xelt epyra kvertxi. qandakebis win iataki mopirketebuli iyo shavi marmariloti. zevsis qandakeba daaxloebit 800 wlis mandzilze aocebda mnaxvels tavisi sidiadit.

1 saukuneshi romis pativmoyvare imperatorma kaligulam ganizraxa, olimpieli zevsis qandakebis romshi gadatana. am saqmis sisruleshi mosayvanad mushebic ki gagzavna olimpiashi. magram, tanaxmad legendisa, qandakebas mastan misuli romaelebi rom daunaxavs, xarxari dauwyia, rasac damrtrgunveli zemoqmedeba mouxdenia romael mushebze da isini ukanmouxedavad gaqceulan.

391 wels romis imperatorma teodosiusma olimpiuri tamashebi akrdzala, radgan miachnda, rom sportuli shejibrebebi ewinaghmdegebodnen qristianul morals da kanonebs, tumca, interesi zevsis qandakebisadmi mainc didi iyo. V saukuneshi igi gadaitanes bizantiis dedaqalaq konstantinopolshi, magram 462 wels im sasaxles, sadac qandakeba idga, xandzari gauchnda, ramac es xeltuqmneli dzegli daangria. dramatulad warimarta olimpiis bedic. VI saukuneshi aq moxda didi miwisdzvra.

5. halikarnasis mavzoleumi

halikarnasi iyo kariis mtavari qalaqi. karia dzv.w.IV saukuneshi sparsetis imperiashi shedioda. am dros karias martavda mavsole. igi daqorwinda sakutar daze, romelsac erqva artemisia. mavsolem gadawyvita tavisi da meughlis samudamo gansasveneblad aego iseti akldama, manamde rom ar ghirsebia mokvdavtagan arc ert didebuls.

akldamis ageba mavsoles sicocxleshive daiwyes. kariis mmartvelma misi dasruleba ver moaswro. igi daaxloebit dzv.w. 350 wels gardaicvala. dakrdzales mis mierve agebul akldamashi, romelsac mavsoles pativsacemad mavzoleumi uwodes. mavzoleumi saboloo saxit artemisiam daasrula.

mavzoleumi warmoadgenda berdznuli tadzris msgavs nagebobas, romelic shemkuli iyo marmarilos kolonebita da qandakebebit. reliefuri samkaulebi tadzrisatvis sheqmnes imdroindelma sauketeso skulptorebma – skopam, leoqarem, briqsisma da timoteosma. nagebobebis tavze mdebareobda safexurebiani piramida, xolo masze aghmartuli iyo mavsolesa da artemisias skulpturebi. mavzoleums darajobda qvis lomebis qandakebebis rigi.

XIV saukuneshi mavzoleumi miwisdzvram daangria. XV saukuneshi wm.ioanes jvarosnuli ordenis raindebi mavzoleumis qvebs iyenebdnen cixesimagreebis asasheneblad. samarxebsac miagnes. oqrosa da gandzeulobis madziebleb samarxebi pirwmindad gadzarcves da gaanadgures.

XIX s-is 50-ian wlebshi arqeologebma mavzoleumis mimdebare teritoriaze chaatares gatxrebi. mat aghmoachines mavzoleumis nashtebi, reliefebisa da qandakebebis fragmentebi.

6. rodosis kolosi

 

kundzuli rodosi egeosis zghvashi mdebareobs.

mravali saukunis ganmavlobashi rodosi damoukideblad arsebobda, magram dzv.w.V saukuneshi igi daipyro masze dzlierma atenma. atenelebis batonoba titqmis ormocdaat weliwads gagrdzelda. dzv.w.IV saukunis dasawyisshi kundzulis mcxovreblebma shesdzles rodosis gatavisufleba berdzentagan. es gamarjveba mat daukavshires mzis ghmert helioss da gadawyvites madlierebis nishnad mistvis manamde arnaxuli dzegli aegot. gadawyvites da sheasrules kidec.

dzv.w. 280 wels skulptorma qaretma daasrula heliosis brinjaos giganturi qandakeba. misi simaghle 35 metrs aghwevda. gadmocemit qandakeba qalaqis sesasvlelshi idga da zghvas gadahyurebda. skulptura tavdapirveli saxit didxans ar shemorchenila. agebidan samoci wlis shemdeg kundzulze moxda didi miwisdzvra da qandakeba miwaze daeca. rodoselma winaswarmetyvelma xalxs misi aghdgenis neba ar misca da kundzulelebi daarwmuna, rom rac moxda, tvit heliosis neba iyo, amitom qandakeba iq unda daetovebinat, sadac daeca.

dzegli aset mdgomareobashic did shtabechdilebas axdenda mnaxvelze. daaxloebit cxraasi wlis ganmavlobashi uamravi xalxi chadioda rodosshi, rata ghmertis dacemuli qandakeba exila. VII saukuneshi rodosi arabebma daipyres. mat gadawyvites, qandakebisatvis brinjaos firfitebi moexsnat. gadmogvcemen, rom kolosis brinjao daaxloebit cxraasi aqlemit gazides.

rodosis kolosisagan agharaferi shemorcha. misi rekonstruqcia moxda tanamedroveta da tvitmxilvelta aghwerilobis mixedvit.

7. aleqsandriis shuqura

aleqsandriis shuqura dzveli msoflios shvid saocrebatagan yvelaze gviani xanis dzeglia. igi aages dzv.w. III saukuneshi egviptis qalaq aleqsandriis maxloblad, kundzul farosze.

es iyo msoflioshi pirveli shuqura. piramidebis shemdeg, dzvel saocrebata shoris aleqsandriis shuquram yvelaze metad gaudzlo dros. is titqmis 1500 wlis ganmavlobashi funqcionirebda da sibneleshi gzas uchvenebda farosis ubisken mimaval xomaldebs.

qalaqi aleqsandria aleqsandre makedonelma daaarsa. igi imtavitve iqca xalxmraval navsadgurad, sadac tavs iyridnen sxvadasxva qveynidan chasuli vachrebi, xelosnebi da mogzaurebi. gemebis seuferxebeli modzraobistvis gadawyda xmeltashuazghvis napirebtan shuquras ageba. mis msheneblobas titqmis oci weli daschirda. shuquram dasrulebuli saxe dzv.w. 280 wels miigho, rodesac egviptes martavda ptolemos II. sainteresoa, rom zustd am dros dasrulda rodosis kolosic.

aleqsandriis, igive farosis, shuqura nagebi iyo marmarilos filebit, simaghle 150 metrs aghwevda. shuqura shedgeboda marmarilos sami koshkisagan. qveda, pirveli koshki, sworkutxa nageboba iyo da masshi is xalxi cxovrobda, vinc shuquras emsaxureboda. mis zemot idga shedarebit patara, rvakutxovani koshki, saidanac spiraluri kibeebit mesame koshkshi adiodnen. zeda koshks cilindris forma hqonda. mis tavze mudmivad ento cecxli, romelic gzas unatebda xomaldebs. shuquras tavze aghmartuli iyo zevsis qandakeba. gashlili zghvidan shesadzlebeli iyo shuquras danaxva 50 km-is mandzilidanac ki.

drota ganmavlobashi aleqsandriis ube zghvis mier motanili silit aivso. XII saukuneshi silis raodenobam ise moimata, rom portshi xomaldebis shesvla sheudzlebeli gaxda. porti gauqmda, xolo shuqura umoqmedod darcha. XIV saukuneshi igi dzlierma miwisdzvram daangria. shuquras brinjaos firfitebi monetebisa da sarkeebis dasamzadeblad gamoiyenes, xolo qvebit samxedro forti aashenes. es nageboba dghemde dgas yofili shuquras adgilze.

berdzeni mwerali lukiane samosateli gvatyobinebs, rom arqiteqtorma, romelmac shuqura aago, tavisi saxeli aghbechda ert-ert qvaze im imedit, rom drota ganmavlobashi igi gadmovardeboda da gamochndeboda warwera: „sostrate, deqsifones dze knidoseli.“ tumca, ipova tu ara vinmem ostatis warwera, aravin uwyis.

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