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dutu megrelis patara qartvelebi

11:06 24.08.2011 [giorgi maxobeshvili]

yvela qartvelisatvis pataraobidanve nacnobi da axlobelia – dutu megreli, cnobili poeti, mwerali da sazogado moghvawe.

dutu megreli, ase icnobs mas misi samshoblo, fsevdonimia. iqneb agharc ki gvaxsovs, rom dimitri tomas dze xoshtaria erqva. dimitri xoshtaria daibada 1867 wlis 26 oqtombers sofel sujunashi (dghevandeli abashis raioni). misi meughlec cnobilia qartvelebisatvis, anastasia eristavi-xoshtaria.

mama, romelic adre gardaecvala, soflis gharibi diakvani iyo. ojaxs uchirda da amitom dimitris deda, shviliturt, dzidzad shevida davit abashidzis ojaxshi, xaragaulshi. shemdeg, shalva dadianis mamis, niko dadianis ojaxs sheafara tavi. am ojaxshi dzalian uyvardat qartuli mwerloba, ramac sakmao gavlena iqonia obol dimitri xoshtariaze.

momavali mwerali swavlobda qutaisis gimnaziashi. sxvadasxva dros qutaisis klasikur gimnaziashi swavlobdnen: kirile lortqifanidze, mamia gurieli, akaki wereteli, giorgi wereteli, niko nikoladze, sergi mesxi, vaso abashidze, kote mesxi, silovan xundadze, eqvtime tayaishvili, niko mari, ioseb ocxeli, kita abashidze, niko lortqifanidze, leo qiacheli, kolau nadiradze, sargis kakabadze, dimitri uznadze, shalva nucubidze, davit kakabadze, vladimer maiakovski, paolo iashvili, tician tabidze, valerian gafrindashvili da sxv.

leqsebis wera gimnaziashi swavlisas daiwyo. misi pirveli leqsi 1888 wels gamoqveynda saliteraturo da samxatvro gazet "teatrshi”. 1891 wels qutaisis krebulshi "cda", dutu megrelis fsevdonimit daibechda motxroba "shvili da deda".

shemdeg saxelmwifo xarjze iurisprudencias swavlobda novorosiis (odesis) universitetshi. odesashi sxva qartvel studentebtan ertad, masac mdzime materialuri pirobebi hqonda.

1892 wels gamovida mwerlis pirveli wigni "suratebi chveni cxovrebidan". 1893 wels gamoica leqsebis krebuli "cremlebi", romelic sazogadoebam da kritikam gultbilad miigho.

1893 wels, universitetis dasrulebis shemdeg, dimitri xoshtaria dabrunda samshobloshi, magram samushaoze ver moewyo da samsaxuri daiwyo gadasaxadebis inspeqtorad da sagubernio saqmeta sakrebulos wevrad, yaris olqshi da erevnisa da ganjis guberniebshi.

qartveli mwerali shedzlebisdagvarad icavda adgilobrivi mshromeli mosaxleobis interesebs. amis gamo samsaxuridan kinagham daitxoves.

am periodshi, 1901 wels sheiqmna dutu megrelis popularuli leqsi "patara qartveli", romelic maleve iqca patara qartvlebisatvis tvitshegnebisa da tvitidentifikaciis shesanishnav himnad. am brwyinvale leqsshi chans qartuli mesianizmi - saqartvelo ghvtismshoblis wilxvedri qveyanaa... leqsi imdenad genialuria, rom zogierts misi avtori akaki wereteli egona. is xshirad shehqondat saskolo saxelmdzghvaneloebshi... am leqsze aghzrdili qartvelebi kvlav schirdeba kavkasias...

leqsi „patara qartveli“ da motxroba „qinaqina“ shesulia iakob gogebashvilis „dedaenashi“ da „bunebis karshi“. "qinaqina" shesulia "qartul saymawvilo motxrobashi" da sxva.

visac waukitxavs "qinaqina", ar sheidzleba gulgrili darcheniliyo.

1917 wels dimitri xoshtaria sacxovreblad gadmodis tbilisshi. mushaobas iwyebs sagangebo saqmeta moxeled, gansakutrebuli komitetis sammartveloshi.

shemdeg msaxurobda saqartvelos damfudznebeli krebis saqmeta sammartveloshi da tbilisis olqis sasamartlos wevrad. am perodshi dutu megrelis mravalricxovani ojaxi kvlav mdzime ekonomikur mdgomareobashi imyofeboda.

saqartvelos gasabchoebis shemdeg mixeil xoshtariam samsaxuri daiwyo gansakutrebuli sagadasaxado sabchos wevrad, safinanso komisariatshi. shemdeg gadaiyvanes ufros revizor-instruqtorad.

mwerali motxrobebisa da leqsebis paralelurad werda poemebs da piesebs. aqveynebda publicistur da teoriuli xasiatis werilebs literaturaze. qartul literaturatmcodneobashi dutu megrelma ert-ertma pirvelma gailashqra dekadentizmis winaaghmdeg, romelic mashin mtels msoflioshi popularuli iyo. dutu megreli cdilobda aexsna realisturi shemoqmedebis xasiati da mnishvneloba. mistvis miughebeli iyo formalizmi da naturalizmic. is orive ukiduresobas akritikebda, romelic modzalebuliyo im dros xelovnebashi.

dutu megreli gardaicvala 1938 wels. dakrdzaluli iyo vakis sasaflaoze. 1968 wels gadaasvenes didubis sazogado moghvaweta panteonshi.

dghes gavixsenot misi brwyinvale leqsi „patara qartveli“. dutu megrelis shesaxeb sxva drosac gveqneba saubari.

patara qartveli

me patara qartveli var,
kavkasiis mtebis shvili,
da gancxromit sxvagan yofnas
mirchevnia aq sikvdili!

qartl-kaxeti, imereti,
guria da samegrelo –
yvela chemi samshobloa,
sayvareli saqartvelo.

qveynis tvali, es qveyana
ghvtis mshoblisa aris wili;
bevr mware dghes moswrebia
da unaxavs bevric tkbili.

xan tu mteri aoxrebda,
iyo mghvreli cremlis cxaris,
brwyinvale droc dasdgomia,
dro davitis da tamaris!..

me patara qartveli var,
saxelovan eris shvili
da msurs mergos sasaxelo
mec sicocxle da sikvdili!..

img ukan | mtavarze