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mat "gvirgvinebi aqvt odnav msgavsi"
mat "gvirgvinebi aqvt odnav msgavsi"
14:05 03.05.2011 [gia mamaladze]

meoce saukunis qartuli literatura dzalian mdidaria. chven, ert-ert werilshi vwerdit, rom es periodi qartuli kulturisatvis iyo uaxlesi qartuli renesansi. im dros qartuli mecniereba umaghles mwvervalze aiyvanes didma mecnierebma. qartuli kultura yvela mimartulebit mdidari iyo genialuri avtorebit:

mwerlobashi: grigol robaqidze, konstantine gamsaxurdia, levan gotua, niko lortqifanidze, mixeil javaxishvili, leo qiacheli, shalva dadiani, otar chiladze, guram dochanashvili, chabua amirejibi da sxvebi. poeziashi: galaktioni, ticiani, paolo, valeriani, gigla, ana kalandadze, muxran machavariani da sxvebi. qandakebashi: elguja amashukeli, merab berdzenishvili da sxvebi. mxatvrobashi: lado gudiashvili, elene axvlediani, avtandil varazi, davit kakabadze da sxvebi. teatrshi: kote marjanishvili, temur chxeidze da sxvebi. kinematografshi: rezo chxeidze, tengiz abuladze da sxvebi. aseve didi msaxiobebi, didi momgherlebi, musikosebi... (bevri gamomrcha da mapatiet).

 

dghes gvinda ori didi shemoqmedis, galaktionisa da konstantine gamsaxurdias ertgvar msgavsebaze gavisaubrot. ufro sworad, mati ori nawarmoebebis ideur msgavsebaze.

 

chventvis, qartvelebistvis, chveni diadi warsuli, chveni kultura, chveni tadzrebi aris wmidatawmida da albat, ert-erti yvelaze mnishvnelovani chvens cxovrebashi (momavaltan ertad, ra tqma unda). xshirad, chveni dzveli didebuli kulturis dzeglebi axal qebas itxoven axali shemoqmedebisagan, rata momavalma taobam kidev ertxel da ufro uketesad dainaxos da sheigrdznos mati sidiade.

 

rasakvirvelia, yvela qartvelisatvis nacnobi da mnishvnelovania svaticxovlis didi tadzari, "sadac saqartvelos cxeli guli asvenia" (lado). tumca, albat, veravin ver gadmogvcems sveticxovlis mshvenebas ise maghalmxatvrulad, rogorc es gaaketa konstantine gamsaxurdiam:

 

sveticxovlisatvis "tvalis shevleba yovel droshi sanukvelia; dilit xvlikisferia igi, moughalavi mzit gashuqebuli, sheghamebisas oqrocurvilia, xolo mwuxris shemodgomisas, tu varskvlavianma camac daadga tvali, cas miechreba misi mrude harmoniit aghvsili xazebis zeswrafva."

 

rac unda brwyinvale arqiteqtori tu xelovnebatmcodne iyos adamiani, albat, ase metyvelad da lamazad ver gadmogvcems sveticxovlis mshvenebas, rogorc es shedzlo kalmis didostatma. tanac, mashin, rodesac ghamit sveticxovels aravin gaanatebda projeqtorebit (axla, ghamit, gachaxchaxebuls vxedavt chvens siamayes), roca aravin aswavlida skolashi bavshvebs ra mnishvneloba hqonda chveni istoriisatvis sveticxovels (axla, madloba ghmerts saqartvelos istorias aswavlian skolashi).

 

"didostatis majvena" monumenturi nawarmoebia saqartvelos gaertianebis ideis gamomxatveli. masshi kidev sxva ara erti ideaa ghiad tu shefarvit gadmocemuli: saqartvlo rom ar unda iyos "ertmorwmune" imperatorze da bizantiaze damokidebuli, arc politikurad, arc kulturulad, arc arafrit. modi, nu davakonkretebt qveteqsts. is ufro zogadi da chkuis saswavlia, vidre erti wakitxvit sheidzleba gavigot. qveteqsti am ideisa chveni istoriuli mizanswrafvaa, romelsac mxolod didi mwerali tu gadmoscemda ise, rom axalgazrdebs gulshi chabudebodat, im dros, im represiebis epoqashi;

 

nawarmoebshi natqvamia isic, rom, sisusteebi yvela admians aqvs, magram, mtavari qveynis ertgulebaa; xelovnebis danishnuleba da sxva. saertod, sveticxovlis idea aris saqartvelos idea (kvarti, sidonias saflavi, sveti cxoveli, ertiani saxelmwifo, sakatedro tadzari da sxva). sveticxovelis ideas ganmarteba da qeba schirdeboda im dros. bevri mkitxveli, romanis wakitxvis gamo dainteresda sveticxovlis tadzrit da kidev uamravi ram aghmoachina iq.  

 

zogs, da mat shoris sxva did qartvel mwerals, zogierti pasaji ar moswonda "didistatis marjvenisa", magram, mis maghalmxatvrulobas ar uayofda. tumca, tvitonac ganicdida didi politikis gavlenas ucxoetshi. ise, arc mas da arc konstantines dasayvedri araferi aqvt, rac sheedzlot konkretul situaciashi, maqsimaluri gaaketes, vitarca eris winamdzghvrebma.

 

iqneb martlac, sheidzleba, zogierti poziciidan ar moewonos vinmes aghnushnuli nawarmoebi, magram, man qartvelta ara erti taoba gamozarda qartulad (sxvebtan ertad). tanac, es romani xom hagiografiuli nawarmoebi ar aris. im periodshi, faqtiurad yalibdeboda qartuli istoriuli romani. idga 1938 weli... vasil barnovi gardacvlili iyo, mixeil javaxishvili mokluli, levan gotuas "gmirta varami" jer ar daewera... aset dros qartuli xelovnebis udides qmnilebaze, sveticxovelze sheiqmna romani...

 

nikorwminda bagrat III-is mefobis dros ashenda 1010-1014 wlebshi. bagrat III pirveli mefe iyo gaertianebuli saqartvelosi. sadac nikorwmindis tadzari ashenda, provincia iyo ertiani samefosi. magram, provinciebshic da kutxeebshic gansakutrebulad mshvenieri tadzrebi shendeboda, romelic ar iyo mxolod religiuri danishnulebis, mat saxelmwifoebrivi mnishvnelobac hqonda.

 

dasrulda nikorwminda da im welsve gardaicvala pirveli xelmwife gaertianebuli saqartvelosi. sveticxovlis tadzris mshenebloba bagrat III-is memkvidris, giorgi I-is mefobis periodshi daiwyes, mcxetashi, romelic sul raghac 12 wlisa gamefda, sul 13 weli imefa, mxolod 25-26 wlisa mokvda, magram, ara ertxel shishis zari dasca bizantiis udzlevel keisars. metsac uzamda bulgarelebis gamanadgurebel mtarvals, rom ara ghalati. mcxeta ar iyo mashin dedaqalaqi, arc tbilisi. iqve yurisdzirshi, tbilisshi, arabi amira ijda. magram qartuli ideologia iswrafoda qveynis gaertianebistvis da arab amiras amgvari grandiozuli tadzritac ashinebda, xolo qartvelebs imeds adzlevda.

 

1947 wels daiwera galaktionis "qebata qeba nikorwmindas". nikorwmindis tadzari, im periodshi mxolod istorikosebma, specialistebma, rachvelebma da sazogadoebis ertma nawilma tu icoda ra iyo, sad iyo da rogori. rac yvelaze ucnauri sheidzleba moechvenos adamians, galaktionsac ar hqonda nanaxi nikorwminda. mas ertma nikorwmindelma moxucma durgalma, nikoloz vachadzem uambo nikorwmindis chuqurtmebis, 12 sarkmlisa da saertod, aghnagobisa da didebulebis shesaxeb (iqaurebi gantqmulni arian durglobit). galaktioni imdenad aghfrtovanda durglis detaluri monatxrobit, rom shepirda nikorwmindaze leqss davwero. „me es dapireba shevasrule, vinaidan me chveuli ara var dapirebis ar asrulebas. saxalxo poetebis sityva yoveltvis saqmea. im dghesve davwere „qebata qeba nikorwmindas“.

 

poetis geniam nichieri durglis gadmocemit da albat, nikorwmindis aghmsheneblis mier saukuneebis wiaghidan gamosxivebuli talantit, ise ganchvrita nikorwminda, titqos tviton yofiliyo misi shemoqmedi an tanaziari shemoqmedisa. ra tqma unda, nikorwmindis tadzrisa da chuqurtmebis avtorebi xom zegarmo nichit madlmosilni iyvnen galaktionivit. erti kia, nikorwmindas raghac "aklda", da es raghac iyo "qebata qeba".

 

galaktionma unaxavad dainaxa da gadmosca chuqurtmebis poeturi aghmafrena, "qvis harmonia". konstantinem ki monumenturi nawarmoebi udzghvna grandiozul, monumentur da harmoniul sveticxovels, "qvashi chakiruli saidumlo" gaamjghavna. antireligiur saxelmwifoshi, galaktionis mier "qebata qeba nikorwmindis" sheqmnis mere, bevrma, kidev ufro kargad gaigo nikorwmindisa da saertod, tadzrebis, mnishvneloba. am orma geniosis mere ufro "qartulia mzera".

 

rogorc nikorwmindasa da sveticxovelshi aris raghac msgavseba, orive tadzari pirveli qartuli renesansis pirmshoebia, aseve, raghacit msgavsni arian galaktioni da konstantine, III qartuli renesansis ert-erti mtavari warmomadgenlebi. mat "gvirgvinebi aqvt odnav msgavsi"!

 

qebata qeba nikorwmindas

 

maqvs mkerds midebuli

qnari, rogorc minda.

chemtvis didebuli

sxivi gamobrwyinda.

mkvidrad aashena,

vinac aashena

da cit daamshvena

didi nikorwminda.

 

gznebit damkargavi

grdzneul chuqurtmebit,

qargit damqargavi

nazi shuqurtmebit,

neta vin azida,

an rogor azida,

ra xelma azida

maghla nikorwminda!

 

ra gandzi gvqonia,

ra mxne, ra mdidari,

jghers qvis harmonia –

darobs ramdi dari.

kargad gamohkveta,

vinac gamohkveta,

sibrdznit gamohkveta

mdzlavri nikorwminda.

 

aq rom taghebia,

svetta shekoneba,

ise nagebia,

sizmris gegoneba.

neta vin aago,

ra nichma aago,

ra madlma aago

sveti – nikorwminda!

 

vgrdznob, vit diadia

tormeti sarkmeli,

xazebshi antia

cecxli misarqmeli:

neta vin aanto,

rom grdznobit aanto

da wlebs gadaando

natlad nikorwminda!

 

xveult diadeba

vxedav – ra uxvia,

drom mas diadema

krdzalvit sheuxvia.

neta vin mohqarga,

da roca mohqarga,

shig mihkarg-mohkarga

gzneba – nikorwminda!

 

mkvetri da moqnili

xazta dasruleba

aris amodqmnili

natvris asruleba.

es is simkvetrea,

es is simdidrea,

raitac mkvidria

dzegli – nikorwminda!

 

shenis sulmnatisad

asvla erovani:

yeli gumbatisa

maghalgherovani,

camdis agherili,

nebit agherili,

satnod agherili,

gshvenis, nikorwminda!

 

mzera qartulia

sivrcis daunjebit,

tvali gartulia

frtian faskunjebit:

frtebi, frtebi ginda,

kidev frtebi gvinda,

ginda daeuflo

sivrces nikorwminda!

 

shen frtamoghughunes

jamta simaghleze,

chveni saukune

gicavs, uaxlesi.

mdzlavri xelovneba,

xalxis xelovneba –

brwyinavs saqartvelos

qebad nikorwminda!


img ukan | mtavarze